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Сырые ростки люцерны стали причиной вспышки сальмонеллеза.

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В Мае 2010-го 22 человека в 10-ти штатах заболели сальмонеллезом после того, как употребили в пищу сырые ростки люцерны.

Another season, another sprout recall.

The Food and Drug Administration said today that Caldwell Fresh Foods of California is recalling packages of alfalfa sprouts that have reportedly made up to 22 people sick in 10 states.

The government says there have been at least 30 outbreaks of foodborne illness associated with different kinds of sprouts since 1996, including a pretty major one last year that caused hundreds of salmonella illnesses.

So how do these vitamin-packed salad toppers that are supposed to be good for us become so frequently contaminated? It's all in how they grow.

"Unlike other fresh produce, seeds and beans need warm and humid conditions to sprout and grow. These conditions are also ideal for the growth of bacteria, including Salmonella, Listeria, and E. coli," according to the government's food safety website.

The FDA's been telling people not eat raw sprouts for years, particularly children, the elderly, and pregnant women, who are most at risk of foodborne illness.

Despite well-documented knowledge of the problems with sprouts, the last time the FDA took major action was over a decade ago. In 1999, it issued guidelines urging companies who grow sprouts to adopt higher sanitary standards and regular contamination testing. The guidelines are voluntary.

The Obama administration says it's serious about beefing up food safety, and the Senate has been sitting on a bill designed to boost the agency's authority in this area. Now that the Wall Street reform bill is done, this latest round with salmonella in sprouts might move policymakers.

E-mails to Caldwell Fresh Foods weren't immediately returned.

UPDATE: International Sprout Growers Association President Bob Sanderson told Shots the industry is developing sprout-specific inspection guidance to help auditors evaluate sampling and testing programs, and would welcome more government input.

But he's worried about the industry's future.

"We have a wonderful product that has really unique nutritional properties, if we can work through the problems," he said.

http://www.news-medical.net/news/201005 … ssian.aspx





As of May 7, 2009, 235 persons infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul have been reported from 14 states. The number of ill persons identified in each state is as follows: Nebraska (111), Iowa (35), South Dakota (38), Michigan (19), Kansas (8), Pennsylvania (7), Minnesota (5), Ohio (3), Illinois (2), Virginia (2), West Virginia (2), Florida (1), North Carolina (1), and Utah (1).

Among the 234 persons with known illness onset dates, illnesses began between February 1 and April 15, 2009. Patients range in age from < 1 to 85 years; 68% are female. Among persons with available information, 3% reported being hospitalized. No deaths have been reported.

The outbreak can be visually described with a chart showing the number of persons who became ill each day. This chart is called an epidemic curve or epi curve. It shows that illnesses began in early February, peaked in early March and have been tapering off in April. Illnesses that occurred after April 17, 2009 may not yet be reported due to the time it takes between when a person becomes ill and when the illness is reported. This takes an average of 2 to 3 weeks. Please see the Salmonella Outbreak Investigations: Timeline for Reporting Cases for more details

Initial Outbreak Investigation
In February 2009, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services identified a higher than expected number of isolates of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul from sick persons which triggered an epidemiologic investigation by state and local public health officials. The investigation included case-patient interviews, a case-control study, laboratory testing of Salmonella strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), inspection of sprouting facilities, and environmental investigations of restaurants. A confirmed case was defined as illness in a person whose stool culture on or after February 1, 2009 yielded Salmonella Saintpaul with the outbreak strain PFGE patterns (XbaI JN6X01.0072, JN6X01.0252, JN6X01.0340, JN6X01.0709, JN6X01.0712, JN6X01.0718, JN6X01.0719). A probable case was illness in a person whose stool culture yielded Salmonella Saintpaul with a pending PFGE pattern. During January 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009, only four cases of the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul were identified by PulseNet (the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance).

On February 26, 2009 a notice about a cluster of case-patients with Salmonella Saintpaul infection among residents of Nebraska was distributed to US State public health officials. Additional cases were then reported from health departments in Iowa, South Dakota, Minnesota, Kansas and Missouri. Interviews showed that five of 14 Nebraska case-patients patronized a common restaurant chain (Chain A) and that nine had recently consumed alfalfa sprouts. Interviews of the first seven Iowa case-patients identified Chain A exposure in one and alfalfa sprout exposure in six. Alfalfa sprouts was the most common food item reported by the case-patients.

To determine if a particular food item or restaurant was associated with this outbreak, health officials in Nebraska and Iowa conducted a case-control study. The study revealed that case-patients were significantly more likely to have eaten alfalfa sprouts than matched controls [27/32 vs. 5/32, crude odds ratio (OR) = 29.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.6-112.4)]. No other food item was significantly associated with illness. Case-patients were significantly more likely to have eaten at Chain A than controls [24/32 vs. 10/32, OR=6.6 (95 % CI = 1.96-22.93)], but this association was no longer statistically significant upon adjustment for exposure to alfalfa sprouts.

By March 19, 2009, a total of 186 cases had been identified in Nebraska, South Dakota, Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, and Minnesota Of the 156 case-patients with completed interviews, 114 (73%) reported alfalfa sprout consumption.

Interviews with employees of restaurants and stores reported by case-patients as the source of their sprout exposure indicated that although the sprouts had been distributed by a variety of companies, all originated at the same sprouting facility (Facility A) in Omaha, Nebraska. FDA was notified and began an investigation. Of the 114 case-patients with reported alfalfa sprout exposure, 112 (98%) could be linked to a restaurant or a retail outlet that had received alfalfa sprouts from Facility A. On March 3, 2009, Facility A agreed to conduct a voluntary recall. The recall proceeded through the distributor channels, who contacted the retail establishments where the sprouts had been distributed.

Alfalfa Sprout Production at Facility A
Facility A produces several types of sprouts, including alfalfa, clover, radish, broccoli, and onion. The seeds for the alfalfa sprouts were distributed by Seed Company B and were shipped from a depot in Washington state. Facility A soaks alfalfa seeds for 15 minutes in a 20,000 ppm chlorine solution derived from calcium hypochlorite. The seeds are then rinsed and placed in germination containers. After 48 hours, a sample of the irrigation water is cultured for Salmonella and E. coli O157. There were no positive test results during January or February of 2009. Upon obtaining a negative microbiologic culture result and after a 96-hour germination period, the sprouts are refrigerated and then distributed to locations within a 250-mile radius of Omaha, Nebraska.

Facility A receives new shipments of alfalfa seed approximately once a month. Preliminary assessment of shipment, production, and distribution dates suggests that the outbreak is correlated with the distribution of sprouts from a seed shipment that arrived at Facility A on January 13, 2009, and was last sprouted on February 13, 2009. While multiple lots of seed purchased only from Seed Company B were used for producing alfalfa sprouts during the period of the outbreak, all lots of seed were identified with the prefix “032,” indicating that they originated from the same seed grower (Grower C).

Linking Cases to Multiple Sprout Growers and a Single Seed Grower
On April 13, 2009, CDC was informed that Salmonella Saintpaul with the outbreak strain PFGE pattern was isolated from stool samples of two West Virginia residents during March, 2009. The isolates from these case-patients had a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from those of earlier cases. One of these case-patients reported consumption of sprouts at a restaurant that received sprouts grown at Facility D in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. On April 16, 2009, CDC was informed of six patients with the outbreak strain among Pennsylvania residents whose illnesses began during March 2009. Three reported consumption of alfalfa sprouts that were grown at Facility D. A preliminary review of records indicates that Facility D received lots of seed identified with the prefix “032” from Seed Company B.

By May 1, 2009, additional cases with illnesses beginning after March 15, 2009 had been identified in Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Ohio, Florida, North Carolina, Iowa, and Utah. At least 20 of these case-patients reported recently eating sprouts. Alfalfa sprouts eaten by these case-patients have been traced back to growing facilities in Michigan (Facility E) and Minnesota (Facility F). A preliminary review of records indicates that Facility E and Facility F received lots of seed identified with prefix “032” from Seed Company B. Alfalfa sprout irrigation water collected on March 10, 2009 from a growing facility in Wisconsin (Facility G) grew Salmonella Saintpaul indistinguishable from the outbreak strain. A review of Facility G’s records indicates these sprouts were grown from a lot of seed identified with prefix “032” received from Seed Company B. No human illnesses have been linked to Facility G.

Since February 1, 2009, including the earlier cases linked to Facility A, 235 case-patients infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul have been reported from 13 states. The number of ill persons identified in each state is as follows: Nebraska (111), South Dakota (38), Iowa (35), Michigan (19), Kansas (8), Pennsylvania (7), Minnesota (5), Ohio (3), Illinois (2), Virginia (2), West Virginia (2), Florida (1), North Carolina (1), and Utah (1).

Preliminary findings from FDA’s investigation indicate that the lots of seeds identified with the prefix “032” were sold by Seed Company B in many states and may account for a large proportion of the alfalfa seeds that were being used by sprout growers during the outbreak. For this reason and because cases of illness are spread across multiple states, on April 26, 2009, FDA and CDC recommended that consumers not eat raw alfalfa sprouts, including sprout blends containing alfalfa sprouts, until further notice (see FDA News, April 26, 2009*). On May 1, 2009 FDA alerted sprout growers and retailers that Seed Company B was voluntarily withdrawing from the market all alfalfa seeds bearing six digit lot numbers that start with “032” (see FDA, Hot Topics - Alfalfa Sprouts*).

Advice for Consumers

Do not eat raw alfalfa sprouts, including sprout blends containing alfalfa sprouts, until further notice.
For persons who continue to eat sprouts, cook them first following FDA’s advice. (see FDA Talk Paper, October 2, 2002*)
Persons who think they may have become ill from eating raw alfalfa sprouts are advised to consult their health care providers.

Advice for Young Children, the Elderly, & Those with Compromised Immune Systems

Never eat raw alfalfa sprouts






Salmonella alert over uncooked bean sprouts as 169 people fall ill in UK since August

Professor Qutub Syed, from the North West Health Protection Agency said: 'As time went on our investigations produced increasingly strong evidence of an association with bean sprouts in this outbreak.
'Now we have results from microbiological sampling... the link with bean sprouts has been established.'
The HPA's Centre for Infections (CFI) in Colindale had identified 110 cases in the UK between August 1 and September 29 but this had risen to 169 confirmed cases by today.

Norma Harris, 58, the bride's mother was among those taken ill with salmonella at the wedding
The CFI normally sees fewer than 10 cases of S. Bareilly in a typical month.
Hugh Lamont, from the North West Health Protection Agency, said they did not know why salmonella is particularly affecting beansprouts at the moment.
'It's part of an ongoing investigation and we have an outbreak control team including members of the HPA and Food Standard's Agency who are looking at it,' he told the Mail Online.
But he added: 'Simply washing them is not enough because the salmonella bacteria can get inside the beansprout.'
Professor Syed also stressed that the vegetable was safe to eat as long as it was prepared properly.
He said: 'No one should be put off eating bean sprouts, provided they are properly cooked. The risk is in eating raw or under-cooked bean sprouts.
'The best advice is to follow the guidance on the packaging, but if there is any doubt or ambiguity about the instructions, cook the sprouts until they are piping hot.'
The warning follows a salmonella outbreak in August where an elderly woman died and nine other people became sick at a wedding in Prestwich, Greater Manchester.
Rene Kwartz, 82, was one of four people taken to hospital following the wedding of Jennifer Harris and Stephen Wicks, at the Hilton Suite, after eating salmon on a bed of noodles and bean sprouts.
Manchester law firm Pannone LLP is representing 20 people taking legal action against the outside caterers Shefa Mehadrin, of Bury New Road, Sedgeley Park.
Professor Syed said people who prepared meals in catering establishments and in the home should keep raw bean sprouts separate from other salad products, including ready-to-eat bean sprouts, to avoid the risk of cross-contamination.
Salmonella bacteria are normally found in wild and domestic animals and birds, especially poultry. Fruit and vegetables can become contaminated if they come into contact with these sources or with contaminated water.

Eating food contaminated with the bug causes gastro-enteritis, abdominal pain, headache, nausea, vomiting and fever. Illness can range from mild to severe.
The elderly, infants and those with impaired immune systems are more likely to have severe illness. In some cases, infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream and then to other body sites and can be fatal without treatment.
However, death from salmonella infection is rare. The majority of patients with salmonella infection recover without treatment.

Norma Harris, 58, the bride's mother was among those taken ill with salmonella at the wedding





«Сальмонеллез чаще возникает у людей, съевших сырые яйца, шаурму, рыбу»

В жару салаты лучше заправлять растительным маслом, а не майонезом или сметаной
Жители Германии в панике. Более тысячи человек госпитализированы с симптомами кишечного отравления, 14 из них не удалось спасти. На сегодняшний день случаи заболевания или подозрения на опасную инфекцию зафиксированы в Швеции, Дании, Великобритании, Голландии, Австрии, Франции и Швейцарии. Немецкие власти проинформировали Еврокомиссию о том, что источником кишечного заболевания — энтерогеморрагической бактерии escherichia coli — стали выращенные на органических удобрениях огурцы из испанских провинций. Под подозрением также находятся биологически чистые огурцы из Нидерландов, продающиеся в Германии. Не все благополучно и у нас в стране: в Мариуполе (Донецкая область) четверо жителей госпитализированы с подозрением на холеру. Оказалось, что больные готовили и употребляли рыбу, выловленную в Азовском море…
— Основной причиной отравлений летом становится несоблюдение элементарных правил, — рассказывает заведующий отделением инфекционной реанимации киевской городской клинической больницы № 9 Александр Артемов. — Опасные бактерии могут быть в плохо промытых овощах и фруктах, молочных продуктах, недостаточно прожаренной или вяленой рыбе и морских деликатесах. На днях выписали девушку, которая заразилась сальмонеллезом, выпив куриное яйцо. За медицинской помощью она обратилась только через трое суток, когда уже возникли угрожающие жизни осложнения: развился шок, до критических показателей снизилось давление, перестали работать почки. Пациентке провели интенсивное комплексное лечение. Только в течение первых четырех часов внутривенно ей ввели около четырех литров различных растворов.
Недавно к нам доставили женщину, которая почувствовала себя плохо после того, как съела творог, купленный в жару на рынке. В моей практике был случай, когда в отделение с жалобами на тошноту, рвоту, резкое повышение температуры, диарею поступили сразу 15 человек. У них обнаружили сальмонеллез. Оказалось, что все пострадавшие покупали шаурму в одном из столичных киосков.
Такие случаи не редкость, хотя мы постоянно напоминаем, что не следует приобретать мясной фарш, сырые яйца, молочные продукты, ягоды и грибы у неизвестного производителя или на стихийных рынках. Надо чаще мыть руки — не только после туалета, но и проехав в городском транспорте, побывав на базаре, в поликлинике, в других многолюдных местах. Купленные фрукты, ягоды или овощи надо тщательно мыть, можно с мылом, и обдавать кипятком.
— В жару бактерии в продуктах очень быстро размножаются. Какие правила следует соблюдать на кухне, чтобы приготовленные блюда не вызвали кишечных расстройств?
— Например, если на руках есть ранки или порезы, следует закрыть их лейкопластырем. Готовая пища не должна стоять рядом с сырыми продуктами — мясом, фаршем, рыбой. Нельзя использовать одну и ту же разделочную доску для нарезания хлеба, овощей, сырого мяса — на кухне должно быть несколько досок, чтобы избежать заражения инфекцией. Скажем, возбудители сальмонеллеза в мясе и колбасе могут находиться от двух до шести месяцев, в молочных продуктах, сливочном масле — до полугода, в яйцах, сырах — год и более.
Продукты нужно обязательно размораживать перед тем, как поставить тушить или жарить. На кухне не должно быть мух. В зной не стоит готовить скоропортящуюся еду. Супы и борщи лучше держать в холодильнике, а перед употреблением прокипятить. Если блюдо подозрительно пахнет или имеет сомнительный вид, желательно его выбросить, чтобы не рисковать собственным здоровьем.
— Многие украинцы летом отправляются в Турцию, Египет, Индию. Как избежать заражения инфекцией в этих странах?
— Если не пить воду сомнительного качества, мыть руки, есть только свежие продукты, то все будет нормально. Но несоблюдение простых правил гигиены повышает риск заразиться гепатитом, холерой и даже брюшным тифом. В большинстве случаев украинцы страдают не экзотическими заболеваниями, а местными инфекциями. Причем многие из них можно избежать. К примеру, решив провести с семьей выходные на природе, нужно помнить, что купаться в неглубоких, с теплой водой прудах, озерах и реках небезопасно — случайно проглоченная вода из такого водоема может стать причиной развития инфекционного заболевания.
У меня был пациент, который заразился лептоспирозом (бактериальное инфекционное заболевание) в лесу, когда перенес ребенка босиком через глубокую лужу. Источником желтушного лептоспироза в природе являются крысы, а водной лихорадки — мелкие мышевидные грызуны, овцы, козы, свиньи и крупный рогатый скот. Инфекция может попасть в организм человека через ссадины, порезы на коже, слизистые оболочки, при контакте с водой, загрязненной выделениями животных. Нередко лептоспирозом заражаются собаководы, ветеринарные работники, фермеры.
— Чем лептоспироз опасен для человека?
— Проникнув в наш организм, лептоспиры попадают в кровь, разносятся в различные ткани и органы, размножаются и поражают мелкие кровеносные сосуды в почках (возникает почечная недостаточность), печени (гепатит). У больного нарушается свертываемость крови (развивается так называемый геморрагический синдром — кровоизлияния под кожу, сыпь на коже, кровотечения из желудочно-кишечного тракта), поражаются мышцы (боли в икроножных мышцах, миокардит), возникает и нарастает общая интоксикация организма. Для лечения этого заболевания мы применяем антибиотики широкого спектра действия, витамины, а также препараты, которые позволяют сдерживать развитие почечно-печеночной недостаточности.


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